The author defines the “age of exhibitions” from the establishment of the Royal Academy (RA) in Somerset House (1780) and the increased popularity of the Summer Exhibition, to the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations at The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park (1851), which marked the second “age of exhibitions”. The thesis includes a database and GIS analysis of the location of landscape artists’ addresses – see fig. 2 and note 53. References to other artists throughout this article, and their proximity to Arnald, are a result of this research.
Anne Bermingham, Landscape and Ideology: The English Rustic Tradition, 1740-1860 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 9. This text is an exception and explores the relationship between urbanization and landscape painting as one of “actual loss and imagined recovery”; however, Bermingham only touches briefly on the creation of landscape in the suburban studio (see: 174–175).
John Thomas Smith, Nolleken and His Times, ed. Edmund Goose (London: George Bentley and Son, 1895), 137.
Hitherto identified as 2 Weston Street, Pentonville. Most recently in Giles Waterfield, ed., Palaces of Art : Art Galleries in Britain 1750-1990 (Dulwich Picture Gallery, 1992), 136. The location has been corroborated by the author. See figs. 2 and 5.
The painting has not been examined by a conservator in relation to this article, all observations are those of the author. It is currently housed in an ornamental frame, though it is not known whether this was original. Materials proposed are described by Arnald in the creation of an underdrawing in George Arnald, A Practical Treatise on Landscape Painting in Oil : Illustrated by Various Diagrams and with Two Original Studies in Oil Painted on the Principles given in the Treatise (London: Published by the author and sold by Roberson and Miller, Long Acre, 1839), 6.
This practice was not uncommon as Constable used ruled lines for architectural features. See Sarah Cove, “Constable’s Oil Painting Materials and Techniques”, in Constable, ed. Leslie Parris and Ian Fleming-Williams (London: Tate, 1991), 508.
Catalogued as 1831 in Richard Walker, Regency Portraits, ed. Judith Sheppard (London: NPG, 1985), 12. However, an alternative suggestion of 1821 has been made in National Portrait Gallery (NPG) Heinz Archive (HA) 46/58/43, Registered Packet 5242–5254, “Director’s Notes for Portraits on Offer at Trustees” Meeting, 17 May 1979. The sitter’s frockcoat, fall-front trousers with loose ankles and shoes date from the late 1820s to the early 1830s, reinforcing the current dating of 1831. For further observations of the sitter’s identity see the author’s thesis, referenced in note 1. There are no records of provenance until the work appears in the estate of M. H. Grant and his susbsequent publication A Chronological History of the Old English Landscape Painters (in Oil): From the XVIth Century to the XIXth Century (Describing More than 500 Painters) (London, 1926), v. 1, 177–178. Purchased c.1962, Montagu Bernard of 21 Ryder Street; donated to NPG in 1979.
H. P. Chapman, “The Imagined Studios of Rembrandt and Vermeer”, in Inventions of the Studio, Renaissance to Romanticism, Michael Wayne Cole and Mary Pardo (Chapel Hill, NC ; London: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), 110.
For the most comprehensive survey hitherto on artists and class, see Martin Myrone, Making the Modern Artist: Culture, Class and Art-Educational Opportunity in Romantic Britain (London: Paul Mellon Centre, 2020), 57–178. See 131–140 for professionalisation.
For Arnald’s self-declaration of his profession see 1841 census: The National Archives (TNA) PRO HO107/662/6/11 St James Clerkenwell /6/5, GSU roll: 438779; and the baptism record of Emma Jane Arnald: London Metropolitan Archives (LMA) Reference Number: P76/JS1/013, 19 October 1817. Trade directories, which could have been defined by the compiler or the individual it was listing, also defined Arnald as a landscape painter with additional variations such as “poetical” and “figures”. For example, see: Anon., The Literary Blue Book or Kalender of Literature, Science, and Art (London: Marsh and Miller, 1830), 44; James Elmes, ed., Annals of Fine Arts, v. 1 (London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 1817), 421; W. Lane, An Illustration of Living Artists; or, a Guide to the Amateur: Being a Classification of Each Professor, According to the Different Branches of Art Which He Practices, with His Address (London: James Ridgeway, 1809), 12, 19. For posthumous references to Arnald’s title see: Algernon Graves, A Dictionary of Artists Who Have Exhibited Works in the Principal London Exhibitions of Oil Paintings from 1760 to 1880 (London: George Bell and Sons, 1884), 7; Samuel Redgrave, A Dictionary of the Artists of the English School: Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers and Ornamentists (London: George Bell and Sons, 1878), 12.
Burton J. Bledstein, The Culture of Professionalism : The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America (New York: W.W. Norton, 1976), 90–99.
Catherine Roach, Pictures-within-Pictures in Nineteenth-Century Britain (London: Routledge, 2016), 3–4, 12.
Ibid., 4, 112.
Svetlana Alpers, The Vexations of Art: Velázquez and Others (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007), 11–14.
See note 1.
The most detailed examination of Arnald’s biography, works and career is Simon Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, Bedfordshire Magazine Spring (1990): 135–141. Scholarship has otherwise referenced Arnald and his self-portrait for the sake of exhibitions or his listing in a dictionary of artists. These predominantly draw on Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 177–178, which is flawed. To avoid repetition Arnald features in Edward Hunter Holmes Archibald, Dictionary of Sea Painters, 2nd ed (Woodbridge: Antique Collectors Club, 1989), 67; Simon Houfe, The Dictionary of 19th Century British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists, 19th Century British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists, rev. ed. (Woodbridge: Antique Collectors Club, 1996), 50; Huon Mallalieu, The Dictionary of British Watercolour Artists : Up to 1920 (Woodbridge: Antique Collectors Club, 2002), 64; Redgrave, Dictionary of the Artists of the English School, 12; Liz Rideal, Insights: Self-Portraits (London: NPG, 2005), 27; Walker, Regency Portraits, 12–13; Ellis Waterhouse, The Dictionary of British 18th Century Painters in Oils and Crayons (Woodbridge: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1981), 1 and 177; Eric A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 2nd ed. (London: Islington Local History Education Trust, 1988), 258.
Records of Arnald’s year of birth are mixed, however, the most probable date is 1766, based on location declared to Farington. Bedfordshire Archive Service (BAS) Farndish Parish Registers P 126/1/1 records “George, son, born to Thomas and Mary Arnold [sic]”; Joseph Farington, The Diary of Joseph Farington: January 1808 – June 1809, ed. Kathryn Cave, v. 9 (New Haven: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1982), 3276–3277, Saturday 14 May, 1808. Also corresponds with the 1841 census (see note 10) where Arnald is listed aged seventy six, so likely born in 1766. Although a different year of birth is suggested, see Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 136 for Arnald’s family origins. Farington’s Diaries have been published by the Paul Mellon Centre, London in sixteen volumes (Kenneth Garlick and Angus Macintyre eds, vols. 1–6; Kathryn Cave ed. 7–16) and an index (Evelyn Newby, The Diary of Joseph Faringon: Index. London, Paul Mellon Centre, 1998) and will hereafter be refered to by their volume number.
BAS Z693, 89 D
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 3276–3277.
There is no evidence with which to identify Arnald’s female employer, either a unknown woman to whom he was footman or a Reverend Thomas Orlebar Marsh (1749–1831). Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 177; Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 136.
Redgrave, Dictionary of the Artists of the English School, 11, records Arnald’s tutor as William Pether (c.1738–1821), however Abraham Pether is more likely as he had an active presence from as early as 1775. This is reinforced by Farington’s description of the Pether Arnald described, including his age, family circumstances and interests in music and technology. Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 376–377. There is no evidence Arnald resided with Pether in Litchfield Street near Leicester Square, however he could have visited them for tutelage walking from his lodgings near Angel (Fig. 2: property 1).
Farington, Diary, 1979, v. 5: 1760.
Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 177.
Graves, Dictionary of Artists in London Exhibitions, 7; Algernon Graves, The Society of Artists of Great Britain, 1760–1791, the Free Society of Artists, 1761–1783: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and Their Work from the Foundation of the Societies to 1791 (Bath: Kingsmead Reprints , 1907), 15.
Arnald describes the experience of this accolade in BAS Z693, 89–90 E.
Farington, Diary, 1982, vol. 10: 3780; 1982, vol. 11: 3875; 1983, vol. 12: 4287.
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 11: 4136–4137; 1983, v. 12: 4404.
Farington, Diary, 1979, v. 5: 1788; 1982, v. 8: 3017–3018; 1983, v. 12: 4229.
BAS Z693, 89–90 E
RA: LAW1/257 T. Lawrence, Greek Street, Soho, to Farington, Post Office, Dorsetshire, 19 October 1810
R. B. Beckett, ed., John Constable’s Correspondence: Patrons, Dealers and Fellow Artists, v. 4 [SRS10] (Ipswich: Suffolk Records Society, 1966) 259, 4 November 1831
For the relationship between Arnald and Constable and their correspondences see R. B. Beckett, ed., John Constable’s Correspondence: The Correspondence with C. R. Leslie, R.A., v. 3 [SRS8] (Ipswich: Suffolk Records Society, 1965), 50; Beckett, Constable’s Correspondence, 1966, v. 4 [SRS10], 258–261; Leslie Parris et al., eds., John Constable: Further Documents and Correspondence (London: Tate, 1975), 174–178.
Arnald, A Practical Treatise on Landscape Painting, 3.
Letters written from several addresses, including Hoxton and Fitzroy Square. See BAS: W1/2934; W1/2935; FAC6/5.
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 3325. Approximately equates to £52, 10/-, and £21 respectively. The “kit-cat” format was approximately 91.44 x 71.12 cm and became a standard scale for portraits. The scale was adopted by Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646–1723) who painted the portraits of members of the Kit-cat Club, a Whig society pledged to uphold the Protestant succession.
Exhibited RA 1808, no. 213. Houfe suggests that Beumont is referring to A Pilot Boat putting of at Aldbor'ough, however this was hung in the main room (no. 173). Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 138. Beaumont’s reaction is detailed in Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 3289, 3297, 3307.
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 8: 2996; 1982, v. 11: 4057; Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 138. To complete the latter commission, Arnald visited Coleorton for eight weeks in the autumn of 1811.
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 11: 4063, 4097, 4109. The work was subsequently hung in the main exhibition, RA 1812, no. 71, alongside Constable’s Landscape: Evening.
Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 140, does not detail which version of the painting this, what evidence there is of the commission, or what happened to the work. More commonly known as Roslin Castle. A smaller version of the same title survives: Ruins of Rosslyn Casle, Midlothian, 1810. Oil on canvas. Gateshead, Shipley Art Gallery.
Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 136 and 140. The publications for which Arnald produced works are also a reflection of his travels, see note 44.
Smith, Nolleken and His Times, 112 and 326.
Arnald made a copy of Beaumont’s Rubens; the copy sold in 1813. See Farington, Diary, 1979, v. 6: 2063; Getty Provenance Index (GPI) (Sales Catalog Br-1084, Lot 0138) A Landscape With Figures Highly finished; this picture was the First production of the artist after studying Sir George Beaumont’s celebrated Landscape by Rubens.
Arnald attempted to sell twenty-one works at Greenwood auction house, London, 21 September 1804 (outcomes unknown); and again 9 March 1811, with mixed results (three sold and two bought in). See GPI Sales Catalog Br-290 and Sales Catalog Br-858 respectively.
George Arnald, The River Meuse: Being Delineations of the Picturesque Scenery on the River and Its Banks, from the City of Liége to That of Mezières. The Drawings Were Made ... in ... 1818 ... (London: J and A Arch, 1828); John Britton and Edward Wedlake Brayley, The Beauties of England and Wales, or, Delineations, Topographical, Historical, and Descriptive, of Each County (London: Printed for J. Harris; Longman & Co.; et al., 1812); Edward Dayes, The Works Of The Late Edward Dayes: Containing An Excursion through the Principal Parts Of Derbyshire and Yorkshire (London: Printed by T. Maiden. Published by Mrs Dayes; Vernor & Hood; Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme; W.J. & J. Richardson; Carpenter; and E.W. Brayley, 1805); James Dugdale, The New British Traveller; or, Modern Panorama of England and Wales (London: J. Robins & Co., 1819); Walter Scott, The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland (London: Longman, Hunt, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1814); James Storer, The Antiquarian Itinerary, v. 1 (London: Wm. Clarke; J. Murray; S. Bagster; J. M. Richardson and Sherwood & Co., 1815); Thomas Wright, History and Topography of the County of Essex (London: G. Virtue, 1836). Arnald also contributed illustrations to the unpublished Prospectus of work … The interregnum; or A history of the civil wars in Great Britain…, c.1812–19 by John Aikin (1747–1822) (Sir John Soane’s Museum Collection ref. 1572).
Arnald, A Practical Treatise on Landscape Painting.
See for example Alexander Cozens, A New Method of Landscape , ed. Michael Marqusee (London: Paddington Press, 1977); Alexander Cozens, The Shape, Skeleton and Foliage of Thirty-Two Species of Trees for the Use of Painting and Drawing (London, 1786). For further discussion of how Cozens used print as an educational medium see Rhian Addison, “The Educators of Trees: Alexander and John Robert Cozens”, The Whitworth, 2017. Accessed 22 May 2020 http://documents.manchester.ac.uk/display.aspx?DocID=32832; Anne Bermingham, Learning to Draw (London: Paul Mellon Centre, 2000), 93–99.
It is arguable that Arnald was a success as his occupation rose from the category of labouring and poor, to that of genteel and professional. Arnald was purportedly a footman (see note 20) and his father a toll keeper, see Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 113. For extensive discussion of the familial backgrounds of RA students see Myrone, Making the Modern Artist, 78–113.
Arnald, The River Meuse, Introduction.
BAS Z693 and BAS deposits register. Purchased by BAS at auction held by G E Sworder and Sons, 15 Northgate End, Bishop’s Stortford, Herts. CM23 2ET, 30 October 1990 (lot 332). The anonymous vendor was a descendent of the artist. Attempts were made to contact the family, however Sworder and Sons have destroyed all records.
BAS Z693, 16–18 D
Arnald’s success can be gauged by his household. Regardless of some potential inheritance (see BAS B394, 17) and his income, it was not enough to employ live-in servants in the year of his death according to the 1841 census (note 10).
This data was compiled from directories of artists, the most significant being Algernon Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and Their Work from Its Foundation in 1769 to 1904 (London: Henry Graves and Co. Lts and George Bell and Sons, 1905), v. 1, 64–66; Graves, The Society of Artists and Free Society, 15; Graves, The British Institution 1806–1867. A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and Their Works from the Foundation of the Institution (London: George Bell and Sons, 1908), 12–13; and supplemented by Ann Cox-Johnson (Saunders), Handlist of Painters, Sculptors & Architects Associated with St. Marylebone, 1760–1960. (London: Borough of St Marylebone, 1963), 3; Elmes, Annals of Fine Arts, v. 1, 421; Anon., The Literary Blue Book, 44; Lane, “An Illustration of Living Artists”, 12, 19. This data has been plotted on a digitised version of Richard Horwood, Plan of the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark and parts adjoining, shewing every house (British Library Maps.Crace.V 174, 1799). My thanks to Matthew Sangster for providing access to his map tiles, created for romanticlondon.org. In 1807 there is an anomaly of an address in Camberwell (Fig. 2: property 9) however this may have been a correspondence address whilst travelling.
Died on 21 November 1841 and buried on 2 December. TNA Registers of Births, Marriages and Deaths RG 4/4000/Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, City Road, 1838–1849.
The undeveloped land was leased to John Weston the elder, subleased to John Weston the younger, who again leased it to builders to establish terraces represented in fig. 3. Arnald’s property was most likely built by John Brettell of Queen’s Row, Clerkenwell or Edward Perby, a painter and glazier. Surname of latter is not legible and open to interpretation. LMA: MDR 1790/7/257, MDR 1791/9/366.
These properties would have been considered “third rate” according to the Building Act of 1774, intended to reflect the social status of the occupant. See Myrone, Making the Modern Artist, 65–67. Properties described in Philip Temple, ed., “King’s Cross Road and Penton Rise Area”, in Survey of London: Volume 47, Northern Clerkenwell and Pentonville (London: London County Council, 2018), 298–321.
The evolution of the property was established by the author using Plan of the Parish of Clerkenwell, London. Survey by Thomas Horner. Engraved by William Cook Esq. Published in Description of an improved method of delineating estates (1813). Islington Local History Centre (ILHC), U931; Ordinance Survey map 1871, sheet VII.34. By Colonel Bayley R.E. Engraved 1873, published 1874 (ILHC); Penton Estate 1907, Penton Family and Estate Papers (1707–1945), (ILHC S/PEN/2/1). The Castle of Gloom was said to be 283 cm wide (see note 106) providing an understanding that the extension was at least this wide and deep to hang on the back wall and on the right-hand wall. The extension would also have needed to be large enough to hold The Destruction of the ‘L’Orient’ at the Battle of the Nile at 185.5 cm x 269 cm (approx. 6 x 8.8 ft.) which was also painted in Arnald’s time at Weston Street.
Little is known about the work’s provenance. Purchased by T. H. Parker in 1922 and then bought by the NPG. See HA 46/20/82, Registered Packet 1967a. For further observations and the construction of the work see the author’s forthcoming thesis, referenced in note 1.
John Thomas Smith, A Book for a Rainy Day: Or Recollections of the Events of the Years 1766-1833, ed. Wilfred Whitton (London: Methuen & Co., 1905), 175 suggests Smith knew Arnald in 1801.
c.1717–1782, graphite on paper, 14.6 x 19.9 cm. London, British Museum. Gifted by Beaumont to Arnald, then passed to Smith in 1822.
Arnald’s property was the second wealthiest on the street, almost double in value to those further down the hill. Rates were between £24 and £30 over eighteen years, reaching the higher rate in 1820 when the first extension may have been built. ILHC Clerkenwell Poor Rate 1817–1820, 1822–1823, 1825–1833, 1835.
For diagrams of Constable’s studio with light sources see Parris and Fleming-Williams ed., Constable, 43.
For the 1841 census see note 10. Sebastian Wyndham’s age is incorrectly listed as thirty as he would have been thirty-five. Sebastian’s birth was registered in Grasmere, Westmorland on 4 January 1806. Accessed via Ancestry.co.uk: England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538–1975, FHL Film Number 97368. This correlates with Arnald doing a tour of the Lake District around this period, going on to exhibit a painting of Furness Abbey (RA 1807, no. 537) and A Mountain Road in Westmoreland (RA 1808, no. 213). Sebastian died in 1880, aged seventy-four, at 18 Marchmont Street, Russell Square, a fifteen-minute walk from the Weston Street home. Accessed via Ancestry.co.uk: General Register Office Civil Registration Death Index, 1837–1915, St Giles, London, 1b, 332; National Probate Calendar, 29 June 1880, 126. There are no surviving records of Arnald’s wife, Mary. A year after moving to Weston Street in 1817, Emma Jane Arnald (1817–1825) was born (note 15), though died in infancy (14 March 1825: BAS Z693, 71).
For a brief overview of career see Redgrave, Dictionary of the Artists of the English School, 12. Before his father’s death Sebastian was exhibiting historical subjects in 1831, and after his father’s death in 1842. See Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts, v. 1, 66; Graves, The British Institution, 14; Henry Moore Foundation, “A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain, 1660–1851”, accessed 11 June 2021 https://gunnis.henry-moore.org/henrymoore/sculptor/browserecord.php?-action=browse&-recid=59&from_list=true&x=0.
Miss A. M., A., and M. A. Arnald may all be Matilda (1841 census, see note 10) listing her name interchangeably. Graves, Dictionary of Artists in London Exhibitions, 7; Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts, v. 1, 64; Graves, The British Institution, 12; Anon., The Literary Blue Book, 44.
Based on the age at the time of submission, Miss A. M. Arnald would have been born c.1812 and around thirty years old at the time of the 1841 census (note 10), implying this could be the Matilda listed. Royal Society of Arts (RSA)/PR/AR/103/14/935; Arthur Aikin, “PREMIUMS OFFERED IN THE SESSION 1826—1827”, Transactions of the Society, Instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce 44 (1825): xliii, no. 83 (hereafter Aiken RSA Transactions with volume number). Although catalogued as a trial painting (an item which was to be created in front of a panel to prove the individual was the creator of the submission when they have no prior connection to the institution) the composition is so complete, it is more likely to be the original submission.
Location of work unknown. Listed in Aikin RSA Transactions 40 (1822): xxxvi, no. 7. An S. Arnald was admitted to the RA schools in 1824, though there is no evidence that this was the same person. See Myrone, Making the Modern Artist, 242 n. 211.
Location of work unknown. Listed in Aikin RSA Transactions 45 (1827): xxxi, no. 55. It is possible this is an administrative error and is again Miss A. M. Arnald. Alternatively, it could be another son, Alfred, born in 1812, who would have been fourteen years old at the time of the submission [LMA: P89/MRY1/013]: possibly Miss A. M. Arnald’s twin.
All works are untraced. Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts, v. 1, 64-6: RA 1798, no. 471, Mrs Arnald; RA 1823, no. 1062, George Arnald; RA 1829, no. 1152, AM Arnald.
For the limited autonomy of women in artistic spheres see Bermingham, Learning to Draw, 224–225.
This is the general perception hitherto, however ongoing research into female artists is revealing that women had greater freedom than previously understood such as Rose Brett (1829–1882) and Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899). See Caroline Chapman, Eighteenth-Century Women Artists: Their Trials, Tribulations & Triumphs (London: Unicorn, 2017), 107–108; Pamela Gerrish Nunn, Victorian Women Artists (London: Women’s Press, 1987), 29–30.
Arnald was living at 28 Buckingham Place, Fitzroy Square at the time of teaching Hume (Mrs Charles Long, Lady Farnborough). Wilson was the daughter of Mrs Wilson (née Boileau) and Lestock P Wilson. See Farington Diary, 1998 Index: 570–571; 1983, v. 12: 4154, v. 14: 4765; Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts, v. 5: 84–85.
Farington, Diary, 1984, v. 14: 4756.
Arnald’s addresses to not align with those of his students, suggesting they did not live with the artist.
Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 179.
Francis Hayman (1708–1776) painted the figures for George Lambert’s (1700–1765) in View of Copped Hall in Essex, from the Park (1746, oil on canvas. London, Tate). Wilson’s Meleager and Atalanta (c.1770, oil on canvas. London, Tate) contains figures which were altered by John Hamilton Mortimer (1740–1779). See Robin Simon, “New Light on Richard Wilson”, The Burlington Magazine 121, no. 916 (1979): 437–438.
Smith, A Book for a Rainy Day, 175. The pair of paintings were exhibited at Somerset House, their current locations unknown.
Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 3325, 3429; 1982, v. 10: 3526; 1983, v. 12: 4152.
Names compiled from Arnald, The River Meuse, Introduction; BAS W1/2934, W1/2935, FAC6/5; Farington, Diary, 1982, v. 9: 3276–3277, 3289, 3297; 1982, v. 10: 3519, 3526; 1982, v. 11: 4057; Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 177; Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 137–140; RA AND/22/109; Smith, A Book for a Rainy Day, 276–277.
Weston Street was a thirty-five-minute walk from Somerset House and forty-five-minute walk from Trafalgar Square, the two homes of the Academy during Arnald’s time in Pentonville. The British Institution (BI) on Pall Mall would also have been a fifty-minute walk. Arnald only features intermittently in directories regardless of increased mention of Weston Street. Pigot and Co.’s London and Provincial New Commercial Directory for 1826-7 : Comprising ... the (London: J. Pigot, 1826), 337; Pigot and Co.’s Commercial Directory: 1832 to 1834 (London: Pigot & Co., 1832), 604; Pigot’s London Directory (London: Pigot & Co., 1838), Index 218.
Artist’s dates and Gunn’s first name unknown. Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts, v. 4, 185; Graves, The British Institution, 289; Jane Johnson, Works Exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists, 1824-1893 : An Antique Collectors’ Club Research Project (Woodbridge: Antique Collectors Club, 1975), v. 1, 373, 524; Robson’s Directory (London: William Robson & Co., 1841), 339; Robson’s London Directory & Court Guide (London: William Robson & Co., 1840), 332.
Arnald, A Practical Treatise on Landscape Painting, 4–5.
Examples at BAS Z693/2 verso, Z693/10 verso, Z693/14 verso.
Watermark on BAS Z693/4. See Peter Bower, Turner’s Papers: A Study of the Manufacture, Selection and Use of His Drawing Papers 1787-1820 (London: Tate, 1990); Theresa Fairbanks, Papermaking and the Art of Watercolor in Eighteenth-Century Britain: Paul Sandby and the Whatman Paper Mill. Scott Wilcox ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Center for British Art, 2006.
Address specified on Arnald, Bowbignes and Dinant (1822, mezzotint print, 23.2 x 30.2 cm. London, V&A); and Wingfield, Bedfordshire (1815, BAS Z50/26/2), illustrated and discussed in Houfe, “The Bedfordshire Prodigy”, 139.
It was believed that the educated liberal man had the leisure time to invest in the landscape, compared to the servile man who had to live off it. See Anon., The Guardian, issue no. 23, 7 April 1713, cited in John Barrell, “The Public Prospect and the Private View: the politics of taste in eighteenth-century Britain” in Reading Landscape: Country - City - Capital, Simon Pugh (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), 19–40, specifically 24; Elizabeth Helsinger, “Turner and the Representation of England”, in Landscape and Power, 2nd ed., W J T Mitchell (Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press, 2002), 103–126.
Victor Ieronim Stoichiță, The Self-Aware Image: An Insight into Early Modern Metapainting, ed. Anne-Marie Glasheen, Lorenzo Pericolo, and Anne-Marie Poncelet (London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 2015), 53.
University of Nottingham Manuscripts and Special Collections (Oversize ND497.W47.W7) includes five pencil studies by Arnald. See T Wright, Some Account of the Life of Richard Wilson, Esq., R.A. (London: Longmans & Co., 1824); Simon, “New Light”, 437–439. Pack was living at 86 Newman Street (1825–1830) whilst Arnald was in Weston Street. The book’s existence suggests they were in the vicinity to visit one another’s studios.
See note 50. The name and address are seemingly in Arnald’s hand. The body of the manuscript seems to be in another hand, perhaps by a member of his family for clarity in the hope that it would be published.
John Thomas Smith, Antiquities of Westminster (London: printed by T. Bensley, 1807).
Mary Moorman and Ernest de Selincourt, eds., The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth, v. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), 518.
Hannah French, “Music, Refinement, Masculinity”, In Focus: Peter Darnell Muilman, Charles Crokatt and William Keable in a Landscape c.1750, by Thomas Gainsborough, ed. John Chu (Tate Research Publication, 2016), accessed 9 February 2019 https://www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/in-focus/muilman-crokatt-keable-thomas-gainsborough/music-refinement-masculinity; Katherine Lester and Bess Viola Oerke, Accessories of Dress: An Illustrated Encyclopaedia (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 2004), 396–398.
Stoichiță, The Self-Aware Image, 60–61.
Ann Bermingham, “Landscape-O-Rama: The Exhibition Landscape at Somerset House and the Rise of Popular Landscape Entertainments”, in Art on the Line: The Royal Academy Exhibitions at Somerset House, 1780-1836, ed. David Solkin (New Haven, CT; London: Paul Mellon Centre and the Courtauld Institute Gallery by Yale University Press, 2001), 126–143.
1795, oil on canvas. London, Royal Academy.
José Ortega y Gasset and Andrea L Bell, “Meditations on the Frame”, Perspecta 26 (1990): 190; Stoichiță, The Self-Aware Image, 258.
Roach, Pictures-within-Pictures, 3–4, 12.
Péter Bokody, Images-within-Images in Italian Painting (1250-1350): Reality and Reflexivity (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015), synopsis, 2, 8, 12–13, 189.
Arnald was known to paint waterfalls of this composition, such as Hack Fall, Yorkshire, which was engraved for Dayes, The Works Of The Late Edward Dayes, 116–117 (RA 05/2108). Another of the same title sold 23 Jan 1807 (GPI, Sales Catalogue Br-451, Lot 0095).
The earliest identification of the painting is Grant, Old English Landscape Painters, v. 1, 177. Later reaffirmed by Walker, Regency Portraits, 13–14.
The mapping of the landscape – which traditionally reflected the ownership of lands – was now becoming centred on the experience of the viewer and what they saw was theirs to possess. As possession was no longer limited to landowners, the appreciation for landscape expanded to the middle classes through printed ephemera, such as guidebooks, maps and prints. For discussion about changing perceptions of public possession see Elizabeth Helsinger, “Land and National Representation in Britain” in Prospects for the Nation: Recent Essays in British Landscape, 1750–1880, eds. Michael Rosenthal, Christiana Payne, and Scott Wilcox (New Haven: Paul Mellon Centre and the Yale Centre for British Art by Yale University Press, 1997), 13–20; Elizabeth Helsinger, “Turner and the Representation of England” in Mitchell, Landscape and Power, 105; Sam Smiles, “Landscape Painting, c.1770–1840”, in A Companion to British Art : 1600 to the Present, Dana Arnold and David Peters Corbett (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), 401.
Stoichiță, The Self-Aware Image, 4, 40–44, 56.
Storer, The Antiquarian Itinerary. Arnald produced over twenty works for this publication. It is probable Arnald visited Clackmannanshire before 1809, resulting in the work exhibited at BI (1809, no. 163, Castle of Gloom, 3.3 by 3.11 feet (approximately 100 by 90 cm)). Arnald used the quote “The shephard swain, on Scotia’s mountains” from James Beattie, The Minstrel (Edinburgh: printed by James Ballantyne, 1805), v. 1, verse XII. See Graves, The British Institution, 13. Arnald may have visited Clackmannanshire again for The Antiquarian Itinerary (1815) commission, however the caption explicitly states “from a painting” by Arnald so may have been engraved from the BI 1809 painting. In 1817, Arnald’s A beautiful landscape, a View of Castle Cambel [sic], in Scotland was auctioned; however with no dimensions listed, it is not possible to know whether this was one of the versions already identified or another altogether. See George Arnald, A beautiful landscape, a View of Castle Cambel [sic], in Scotland. Sold by Alexander Davidson, auctioneer George Jones, for thirty-nine guineas, 28 April 1817, lot 84. Getty Provenance Index, Sales Catalog Br-1505.
RA, The Exhibition of the Royal Academy M. DCCCXIV (London: Printed by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent Garden, 1814), 15, no. 250.
Clement Cruttwell, A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, v. 6 (London: G. and J. Robinson, G. Kearsley, T. N. Longmand and O. Rees, 1801), 125.
Though frowned upon by audiences, it was possible for artists to re-exhibit work. The dimensions were listed as 7.9 by 9.3 feet (approximately 2.4 by 2.8 metres), echoing the scale in the self-portrait (Figs. 1 and 5). Graves, The British Institution, 13, no. 162.
Roach, Pictures-within-Pictures, 2–6, 64–65.
See for example Rideal, Insights: Self-Portraits, 27.
Roach, Pictures-within-Pictures, 84.
Oil on canvas. London, National Gallery. Comparison to Dughet made upon sale of Arnald, A Landscape, Dido and Aeneas. Christie’s 12 May 1838, lot 52. GPI, Sales Catalog Br-4887.
Claude, The Enchanted Castle (London, National Gallery); Wilson’s Landscape Capriccio with Tomb of the Horatii and Curiatii (Tokyo, National Museum of Western Art) may have remained in London, and therefore accessible to Arnald, as it was sold at Christie’s 7 June 1845. See The National Museum of Western Art, https://collection.nmwa.go.jp/en/P.1998-0005.html, accessed 17 February 2021.
Arnald had previously made a copy of Rubens’s Château de Steen in 1804 from Beaumont’s collection, which suggests he would have had access to Beaumont’s Wilson at the time: see Simon, “New Light”, 439, fn. 12. Beaumont also owned Claude’s Landscape with Hagar and the Angel (1646) and Poussin’s Landscape with a Man washing his Feet at a Fountain (c. 1648) which he later bequeathed to the National Gallery, London. Arnald may well have had access to William Beckford’s (1760–1844) London collection as Turner did in 1799.
Roach, Pictures-within-Pictures, 2.
Ibid., 3; Stoichiță, The Self-Aware Image, 108, 206.
Rhian Addison McCreanor is an AHRC collaborative PhD student between the University of York and Tate Britain. This article has evolved from her ongoing PhD thesis, Landscape Artists’ Studios in London, 1780–1850 (University of York). Rhian was awarded a Research Support Grant by the Paul Mellon Centre for British Art to develop case studies on George Morland (1763– 1804) and John Constable (1776–1837). In 2019 Rhian was a UKRI Research Council Policy Intern at the National Archives, advising DCMS on how policy can evolve to protect digital cultural assets. Previously Rhian was Curator (Historic Fine Art) at the Whitworth, University of Manchester where she curated Cozens and Cozens and South Asian Modernists, 1953-63. Rhian was formerly Assistant Curator at Watts Gallery – Artists’ Village and was awarded the Associateship of the Museum Association in 2016. Acknowledgements: This research would not have been possible without funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council which facilitated the joint project between the University of York and Tate Britain, part of the Collaborative Doctoral Programme. My gratitude goes to my supervisors Richard Johns, Martin Myrone and Amy Concannon, who have always encouraged my cross- disciplinary approach to art history. Recognition must be given to Caitlin Doley for suffering numerous versions of this case study. Finally, thank you to Niall McCreanor for his endless patience as my enthusiasm for the research exceeded what I could achieve in daily life.